A STUDY OF MICAH
Commentary by Dr. Mark G. Cambron
Introduction to the Prophetic Books
Diagram of Prophecy in the Word of God
This simple diagram will illustrate perfectly how prophecy, AS A WHOLE, is divided into seven divisions:
(1) His Own Day; (2) The 70-Year Captivity; (3) The Restoration; (4) The coming of Messiah for the First Time; (5) World-wide Dispersion of the Jews; (6) The Tribulation; (7) The Kingdom.
(1) As for the prophet’s day the Word abounds with references to it.
(2) Jer. 25:11.
(3) Jer. 29:10; Dan. 9:2
(4) The Old Testament is filled with Messianic prophecies
(5) Amos 9:9; Ezek. 36:24, 28; 37:14.
(6) Jer. 30:4-7; Dan. 12:1.
(7) Isaiah 2:11; 11:11; Amos 9:14, 15.
Micah was a contemporary of Isaiah, and a farmer like Amos. The very wording sounds like Isaiah. It was Micah who foretold the birthplace of Christ.
His name means “Like unto Jehovah.”
I. Condemnation of Israel (1 - 3)
A. The Divine Announcement (1:1-4)
B. The Prophetic Attitude (1:8 - 2:13)
C. The Judgment Certainty (3)
II. Consolation for Israel (4 - 5)
A. The Kingdom (4:1-8)
B. The Captivity (4:9-13)
C. The King (5)
III. Controversy with Israel (6 - 7)
A. Micah’s Call (6:1-2)
B. Jehovah’s Appeal (6:3-5)
C. Israel’s Question (6:6-7)
D. Micah’s Answer (6:8-9)
E. Jehovah’s Charge (6:10-16)
F. Israel’s Lamentation (7:1-10)
G. Micah’s Response (7:11-13)
H. Jehovah’s Compassion (7:14-20)
Again, we wish to point out to you the diagram of “Prophecy In the Word of God” seen above, that the prophets as a whole prophesied the following: (1) His own day, (2) The captivities: Assyrian, of the Ten Upper Tribes of Israel; and Babylon, of the two Lower Tribes, Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin, (3) The restoration of the twelve tribes, (4) The coming of Messiah for the First time, (5) World-wide dispersion of the Jewish people, (6) The tribulation, and (7) The kingdom.
The best dates of the following are the nearest we can assume: The writing of this prophecy is 750 to 710 B.C. The captivity of “Ten Tribe Israel” was in 740 B.C., but the captivity of Judah was in 600 B.C. And most of Micah’s prophecies were directed to the Lower Tribe Kingdom of Judah. Many of the prophecies of the Old Testament have already been fulfilled except:
1. The 70th Week of Daniel, consisting of seven years. Christ Jesus fulfilled the 69th week of Daniel by His death, resurrection, and ascension, and between the 69th week of Daniel and the 70th week of Daniel the Lord ushered in the Church Age for Him to get a people for His name from among the Gentiles.
2. The Covenant of the antichrist with Israel for seven years.
3. Three and one half years later he breaks his covenant with Israel, placing his throne in the Temple and demanding to be worshipped. In this time, the false prophet erects an image of the antichrist demanding the world to bow down to it, else they are beheaded.
4. The destruction of the temple, erected only 3 1/2 years before.
5. The coming of Messiah to the earth to regather Israel. (Isaiah 11:10-12; Jeremiah 16:14-16)
According to the Book of Ephesians, the Church [Body of Christ, The One New Man, The Building, and the Bride] cannot be found in the Old Testament, for the Old Testament’s concern was for Israel only (Ephesians 2:14-3:12).
Here the Apostle Paul declares that the Church is a Mystery. And the word mystery means “a truth revealed for the first time” or “a truth which was revealed at the proper time.” He also states that this Mystery was first revealed to Apostle Paul: “How that by revelation he made known unto me the Mystery” (of the Church, herself, of course).
Therefore, when the Scriptures in the Old Testament are speaking of Israel, it is speaking of nothing else but of Israel; and when it speaks of the Church, it is speaking of the Church.
How wonderful it is now to go to the book of Micah of the Old Testament, and learn that the prophecies concern only the nation of Israel, both the “Ten Tribe Kingdom” and the “Lower Three Tribe Kingdom of Judah.”
It is true there were thirteen tribes of Israel, for Joseph got a double portion in the land: Ephraim and Manasseh, but the tribe of Levi was not given any portion, for Jehovah said, “I shall be the inheritance of Levi.” However, when Israel is spoken of, it consists of only twelve tribes — one tribe is hid in the mind of God. Take Revelation 7:4-8, only twelve tribes are mentioned, leaving one out, the tribe of Dan.
Why is the tribe of Dan omitted? Some present the idea and among those “some” were the Fathers of Israel in Babylon who predicted that the antichrist shall come out of the tribe of Dan according to Genesis 49:16, 17 — the interpretation being “the serpent by the way” is the antichrist whose venom is spread on the horses heels, causing the rider to fall backwards causing many of his brethren to perish. Others have said that Dan’s name is omitted because it was the first tribe to go into apostasy, the worshipping of idols.
Micah means “poor, humble.” Micah covers the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah. What he writes has to do with Samaria, capitol of the “Ten Tribe Kingdom of Israel” and Jerusalem which of course is the capital of the Kingdom of Judah.
Verses 2 - 5
The coming doom of the Upper kingdom of Israel is announced to the whole world what Jehovah is going to do with Israel.
I will make Samaria a heap of ruins placing vineyards in the places of the houses of the people. All the foundations of the city, Samaria, and the dwellings of the people will have no resemblance of a once beautiful place to live in.
Here idols were bought with money that the women who turn to be harlots have gained.
Micah is suffering at the reality of the destruction of Samaria (Israel). All this is brought out by Micah’s humility shown by his disrobing before the people, naked, as Israel stands condemned before her God.
Verses 9 - 12
Oh, the sin of Israel has descended as a flood even poured out upon Jerusalem. She is none the better.
Verses 13 - 16
Oh, the extreme of Jehovah’s (the LORD’s) punishment. As they look upon their children, they are going to be taken from them and given away as slaves to the enemy God chooses which we know to be Assyria.
Now the scheme of the human vulture is made bare. Upon their beds they think of someone’s beautiful house and inheritance, plan a deception, taking away the possession by fraud, with the judges joining in with the acceptance of a gift.
Verses 3 - 5
The Lord Jehovah is planning their punishment. Until you lose to others as you gained in the first place and become as Egypt after Jehovah poured out His vengeance on her. Hear the Servants of Pharaoh:
“And Pharaoh’s servants said unto him, How long shall this man be a snare unto us? let the men go, that they may serve the LORD their God: knowest thou not yet that Egypt is destroyed?” (Exodus 10:7)
“There is no one to plead Samaria’s cause. Nothing can stop my utter destruction upon this my people Israel.
To think, Israel were the people of God — the objects of His love and grace — but she embraced a piece of rock, or silver, or gold — saying “this is my God!” Whew!
Verses 6 - 7
About the coming trials of death and despair, don’t mention such things. Surely such treatment will not be our portion.
No houses, no fields, no measuring line to be claimed by Israel. Do you think the Spirit of Jehovah delights to talk to you so roughly? God’s threats are for your good.
Jehovah, Almighty God, by His omniscience (all knowing attribute) “knows your smallest of rebellion against Me.”
You have driven out the widows, stripped their children of their possession. This land is no more yours.
Verses 10 - 11
You like your prophets to be drunk when they prophesied to you — lying prophets there are.
But God in His grace and remembrance of His covenant to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob — and I will regather you.. There will be no unbelief in you then. It will be Messiah’s joy to regather you.
Verses 1 - 4
Oh, Israel, all the sins you are guilty of — I know. You take your kinsmen and treat them shamefully. As it were you completely break them into pieces.
As they cry unto me, I, Jehovah, will hear and deliver them.
Verses 5 - 7
And did you know your priests whom you have conspired with, they are the ones who have led your astray.
Their cry of “peace,” is really for war. Consequently, it will be night for you — without a vision. Only darkness. Yes, the sun will go down on the prophets, the day shall become dark over them.
Micah becomes bold, “I am filled with power — with the Spirit of Jehovah and with justice and courage.”
To make known to Jacob his rebellious act. Even to Israel his sin.
Hear this, you heads of the house of Jacob and rulers of the house of Israel who abhor justice tainting everything that is straight.
Who build Zion with bloodshed and Jerusalem with injustice.
For a bribe the leader pronounces judgment in your favor. Your prophet speaks as you want them to say for money. And all the irony — Is not Jehovah among us!
Surely He will not allow destruction to come upon us.
But, because you, Zion shall be plowed as a field. Jerusalem shall be a heap of ruins. This was fulfilled by Babylon under their first king, Nebuchadnezzar.
This chapter has to do with Messiah Jesus and His people redeemed Israel.
It will come in the last days — in the Millennium and
The Temple shall be built by Messiah, “Behold the man whose name is the BRANCH, and he shall grow up out of his place, and He shall build the temple of Jehovah. Even he shall build the Temple of Jehovah, and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne, and He shall be a priest upon His throne: and the counsel of peace shall be between them both...And they that are far off shall come and build in the temple of Jehovah, and ye shall know that Jehovah of host hath sent me unto you” (Zechariah 6:12, 13, 15)
And many nations shall come, and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem.
Messiah shall judge the world. He shall cause war to cease. Then the nations shall beat the swords into plow shares, and their spears into pruning hooks. No more war. Messiah will not allow it.
No more training camps.
Each man will sit under his vine and under his fig tree without a wavering heart. For Jehovah hath thus spoken.
As people of today, all people walk after their god. But then in the Millennium, under Messiah Jesus, we will walk in the name of Jehovah our Elohim (God) forever and ever.
Look at what Jehovah shall do: “In that day, saith Jehovah, I will assemble the lame (and the lame shall not be lame anymore) and gather the outcast (by the world) even those whom I have punished shall be a strong nation.
Verses 7 - 8
And Jehovah shall reign in Mt. Zion from now on and forever.
Right here Jehovah speaks so His people of the impending attack of Babylon — Judah must be punished. Oh, if we could march right into the kingdom age with Messiah leading us.
Yes, to Babylon Judah must go.
And Jehovah will redeem you from the hand of your enemies. All this came about as He said. Babylon did take over Judah, and as Jeremiah prophesied, in Jeremiah 25:12, Judah was in exile in Babylon for 70 years.
Verses 11 - 13
Israel shall be avenged of the Gentile rule over them. This, of course, is in the Millennium under Messiah Jesus’ rule.
So many of the prophets did speak of Messiah Jesus, but only Micah gave us the place of His birth — Bethlehem.
Up until the Lord Jesus, Israel suffered hostile possession — that is, Rome dominated the politics of Israel. Even the position of High Priest, though he had to be a Levite, yet some did not follow the succession of the priesthood through Aaron. Some were appointed by Herod who were very young.
Herod ruled over Judah, and his office was an appointment by Tiberius (A.D.26). Then there was Herod the Great who was king of Galilee and ruled by edict of Augustus Caesar.
Israel knew the rule of Rome. Their leaders were appointed by Rome, and its money was Roman. Soldiers by the hundreds lived in the Promise Land. After the birth of Christ, Herod the Great asked the wise men to give him the address of this new baby called “King of the Jews.” When they went back another way, Herod found out he was deceived, made a proclamation that all Jewish babies two years old and younger were to be slain. We find that Jesus as a babe was taken by Joseph and Mary to Egypt and stayed there until Herod died and returned to the Promise Land in Nazareth.
His birth place is here chosen: “Bethlehem Ephratah (Fruitful), though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose going forth have been from of old, from everlasting.”
The people of Israel knew it was about the time for Messiah to be born. The prophets had the Old Testament, and should they have looked into the scroll of Daniel, they knew that the 69th Week (483 years) was about to be fulfilled when Messiah would take over.
We find that a man by the name of Simeon who was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Ghost was upon him, and it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost that he should not see death before he had seen the Lord’s Christ (Messiah). And this man came to the Temple, and when the parents brought the child Jesus...then took, Simeon, the Lord Jesus up in his arms, and said, “Lord, lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word; for mine eyes have seen thy salvation [salvation, the word, means Joshua — Jesus!].
And even Herod asked the scribes where was Messiah to be born, and they told him, Bethlehem.
Yes, there are many statements in history which proclaim the existence of the Messiah at that time. What did the Wise Men say, “We have seen his star in the East.”
As the nation of Israel knew that Messiah was soon to be born, so the world today has been informed of the soon appearance of the return of Christ for His Ransomed Church.
As verse 2a has been fulfilled, so it is that we are looking for His soon return. Then the rest of the verse shall be fulfilled when Christ returns with His Church and Redeemed Israel of all ages, to be rulers in Israel (Zechariah 6:13).
He himself was manifest in flesh, nearly two thousand years ago [someone has said: When he was 12 years old, and unknowingly left Jesus behind, some of the elders of Israel, hearing and seeing Him, were amazed as His “philosophy fell from His lips,” asked Him (this is a story, not found in the Scripture), “Son, how old are you?” To which He replied, “On my mother’s side, I am twelve years old, but on my Father’s side, I am from time and eternity!” And the Scripture voices the same thing, “whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.”
There was to be a lag in the history of Israel. Christ will rule over Israel and the world after Israel returns in faith to the Lord Jesus.
But oh, when He does reign! Those that trust Him among Israel shall be great unto the ends of the earth.
What a contrast in unbelieving Israel which has lasted nearly two thousand years — How come? Why God in His love and forgiveness has in these two thousand years of Israel’s blindness gone out and taken a people for His name from among the Gentiles.
The nation of Assyria will be dealt with, but to our surprise we find that from the captivity of Israel, the cruel Assyrians molested only a little Israel. Yes, the Assyrians made the children of Israel wealthy, for when the edict was made by Cyrus the Mede (who had defeated Babylon) for all Jews of the Ten Tribe Kingdom and the Kingdom of Judah, only 50,000 (fifty thousand) returned; and only a small percentage of Israel, about 1000 returned the rest from Judah.
Assyria, which is now Iraq, was so good to Israel that they refused to go back to the land. That was over 2000 years ago, and there are still many thousands, descendants of Israelis still in Assyria (Iraq) today.
Verses 5 - 6
From verses 5 and 6 we see that the land shall in the future be desolate (could this be caused by the rulers of Iraq  opposing the decisions of the United Nations?).
The Lord Jesus stands, as it were, in the shadows waiting for Israel to return to Him, Jehovah manifest in the flesh, Messiah Jesus. He, it is, who “stands at the door and knock: if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me.”
The Lord Jesus is not sitting on his throne (by David), for He says “To Him that over cometh” and how does one become an overcomer? “And they overcome him (Satan), by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony, and they loved not their lives unto the death” (Rev. 12:11). Back now “To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I overcame, and am set down with my Father in His throne” (Rev. 3:20, 21).
In the last days (and we are in them now), Israel shall be scattered among the Gentiles.
Yes, the remnant of Jacob shall be among the Gentiles. And as they are in every nation of the world, God is going to strengthen them. We are hearing from united Jewry saying, “No more. Not again!” We shall not experience another holocaust. Amazing strength is being given to the house of Israel which shall strengthen them who oppose them.
Yet we find that during the Great Tribulation, 9/10 of Israel shall be destroyed in the world (Amos 5:3), and 1/3 shall be killed in the land (Zechariah 13:8, 9).
Everything shall be changed, even to the punishment meted out by God upon Israel. Israel shall be erased (Zechariah 8:11-14).
Verses 9 - 15
Jehovah shall purge idolatry and witchcraft out of Israel, and today that is a standing fact.
Verses 1 - 4
Here Jehovah restates His love and mercy and grace to His holy people. He does ask, Why have you mistreated me as you have? Where were you when I appeared unto you? In Egypt. Yes, you were designated for slavery — 400 years would be a drop in the bucket. But I raise Moses my prophet for you told Pharaoh, “Let My people go!”
Remember Balak, how he tried to buy Balaam off to curse thee, and I had him to bless Israel instead? Yes!
Right now, Israel, you have not come into Millennial blessing as yet.
Does the coming of Israel before Jehovah, bowing humbly before Him, with burnt offerings and calves a year old satisfy the Almighty (El Shaddai) God?
Or will He be pleased with thousands of rams, or with ten thousands of rivers of oil, or shall I give my first born son for my transgression — the fruit of my body the sin of my soul.
Neither! O Man, has not Jehovah showed thee what is good, and what Jehovah requires of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?
The voice of Jehovah can be heard out of Jerusalem. Your sins are very great. It is good to think what our God is going to do with Israel in the future. But what God is concerned with is your spiritual condition right now.
Verses 10 - 11
You claim to be pure — but I know the depth of your sin. You are rich by cheating; your homes are full of treasures gained by lying scales. Shall I approve your merchants with their bags of false deceitful weights?
Your rich men are wealthy through extortion and violence; “your citizens are so used to lying that their tongues can’t tell the truth.
“I can do nothing but wound you. I will make you miserable for all your sins. In this day before Messiah returns, you shall eat but never have enough.
God has taught you to make money (Deuteronomy 8:18), but you can’t keep it.
You shall sow, but thou shalt not reap. Thou shall tread the olives, but not enough is pressed to anoint you. Your wine will decrease, not enough to drink.
The laws of the contemptible Omri and his son Ahab (remember them of 200 years ago), and you walk in their appreciation of My laws. This will bring about your desolation, and the inhabitants an hissing; they shall poke fun at you.
God’s great promise of every man abiding under his own vine and fig tree will come when Israel is saved, “as it is written, There shall come out of Sion the Saviour and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob.” But until Israel does repent and trust Messiah Jesus, the woes of God are upon him.
Israel can say, I thought I would have an abundant harvest, but there is no cluster to eat.
Are there good men left? Aren’t you listening? There is none left, and there is not a pure man left. Why, every person turns out to be a prey for the ungodly. There is none good, no not one. Any new person becomes the object of their nets of vice.
A man tells the gang what he wants, and the system operates through the wicked prince and the unjust judge with their hands opened for a bribe. That is how the deal is made.
The best of them is a brier bush and the most upright is as a thorn hedge. Be very careful, or you will pull back a hand full of thorns. They care not that there is coming a day of reckoning.
The Bible says “It is better to trust in Jehovah than in `any’ man.” Forget about your friend — mention nothing to him — put no confidence in a guide. Keep your mouth shut even unto your wife.
An enemy shall be of one’s own household.
The prophet has learned that the warnings of God are perfect. It is better to trust in Jehovah, so the author turns to Jehovah. Yes, he says he shall wait on God, and let Him supply that which is lacking.
Don’t laugh at my fall, fast friend — for I shall arise. When darkness comes, Jehovah shall be a light unto me.
I have sinned against Jehovah, thus His punishment is deserving, so I will trust Him, that though I have sinned against Him, He will plead my cause and pour vengeance upon those who attack me. He shall bring forth the light and draw me to it, and I shall see and approve His righteousness.
There is no enemy as a woman, and her accusations have I heard, but she shall be ashamed at her accusations. Where is Jehovah? She has found out as she is trodden down as the mud of the streets.
Verses 11 - 12
Now God Almighty (El Shaddai) shall have men to build your torn down buildings. People from other lands shall come and honor you — from Assyria to Egypt, and from Egypt to the Euphrates, from sea to sea, and from distant hills and mountains.
But before these blessings there come terrible destruction upon Israel because of her wickedness.
O Jehovah, gather your flocks together. Demonstrate by thy scepter of thy power and love. Be the Great Shepherd to them also. Let thy people enjoy their great harvest in Boshan and Gilead as in days long passed.
As it were when you came out of Egypt, I will show you miracles.
Verses 16 - 17
The Gentiles shall see my love toward you and be ashamed. Oh, the fear of Jehovah shall the Gentiles see and experience. They will hardly know what to do. They shall be humbled, licking up the dust like serpents. They shall come trembling out of their fortresses to Jehovah our Elohim — come in dread — and shall be afraid because of Thee.
Who is like unto our God — who pardons iniquity and passes over the rebellion of His remnant of His possession.
He does not retain His anger forever because His unchanging love directs His to.
He will again have compassion on us. He shall walk upon your iniquities. Yes, Thou wilt cast all their sins into the depths of the sea.
What sea? Atlantic? Pacific? Mediterranean? None of these.
The human author speaking and writing of the Salvation that Israel enjoyed as they offered upon the Brazen Altar. When one offered to God his lamb for his sacrifice, the animal was slain and its blood was poured at the bottom of the Altar.
Now when Solomon built his temple (and it was still standing at the writing of this Book), the offerer would place his hands upon his sacrifice, confessing his sins to God, then slay the animal and let its blood be poured in the hole by the north side of the Brazen Altar. That hole that was cut out of the rock of the mountain upon which the temple was built is still there. Their Temple is not standing because it was destroyed, but there under the Dome of the Rock is this hole for the blood.
There was a pipe from this hole which caught the blood to a larger pipe which under ground went south, then under the wall of the city and east to the Brook Kedron, so as the water flushed the blood (which was offered for his sins) with the sins was carried all the way to the Kedron Branch, and the Kedron Branch then carried the water, the blood, and the sins all the way to the Dead Sea! There the sins remained at the bottom of the Dead Sea, and there is nothing deadlier than the waters of the Dead Sea. What an atonement God provided for Israel.
But how about our sins? What sea are they buried in? None! None? That’s right, none! Where are they? They have been washed away by the precious blood of the Lord Jesus Christ! (Glory, Hallelujah!)
Israel is still to be blessed! And she shall receive Thy truth as given to father Jacob (Israel). And his unchanging to Abraham. Which Thou did promise our forefathers for the days of old.